Tuesday, November 29, 2016

For distance students

Exam Questions for Methodology of Teaching English
1.    Activities for teaching sounds
2.    Principles for teaching English sounds
3.    Teaching intonation
4.    Principles for teaching reading
5.    Example activities and exercises for teaching reading
6.    Example activities for speaking practice
7.    Example activities for communication
8.    Principles in teaching writing
9.    Example activities and exercises for teaching writing
10. Principles in teaching  listening

Wednesday, November 23, 2016

Nomadic based culture

Nomadic based culture
Like every other nomadic culture, Mongolian culture is well-known for its hospitality. Upon guests’ arrival, traditional offerings and treats are served - dairy products in the summer time, and meat in the winter. Traditionally a Mongolian, even during his absence, will leave his ger unlocked, in order to allow any passer-by to rest and enjoy the treats which are left on the table for visitors.
Mongolians traditionally lead a pastoral, nomadic lifestyle. Because of the climate and short growing season, animal husbandry defines the nomadic lifestyle, with agriculture playing a second role. Nomads raise five types of animals - goats, sheep, cattle (including yaks), camels and horses - that provide meat, dairy products, transportation, and wool. Of these animals, the horse holds the highest position in Mongolian tales and legends.

Translation of phrases

Translation of phrases
An idiom (Latin: idioma, "special property", "special feature, special phrasing"), is a combination of words that has a figurative meaning, due to its common usage. An idiom's figurative meaning is separate from the literal meaning or definition of the words of which it is made. Idioms are numerous and they occur frequently in all languages. There are estimated to be at least 25,000 idiomatic expressions in the English language.
In phraseology, idioms are defined as a sub-type of phraseme, the meaning of which is not the regular sum of the meanings of its component parts. John Saeed defines an idiom as collocated words that became affixed to each other until metamorphosing into a fossilised term. This collocation of words redefines each component word in the word-group and becomes an idiomatic expression. Idioms usually do not translate well; in some cases, when an idiom is translated directly word-for-word into another language, either its meaning is changed or it is meaningless.



Background of Language Learning Strategies

Research into language learning strategies began in the 1960s. Particularly, developments in cognitive psychology influenced much of the research done on language learning strategies (Wiliams and Burden 1997:149). In most of the research on language learning strategies, the primary concern has been on "identifying what good language learners report they do to learn a second or foreign language, or, in some cases, are observed doing while learning a second or foreign language." (Rubin and Wenden 1987:19). In 1966, Aaron Carton published his study entitled The Method of Inference in Foreign Language Study, which was the first attempt on learner strategies.After Carton, in 1971, Rubin started doing research focussing on the strategies of successful learners and stated that, once identified, such strategies could be made available to less successful learners. Rubin (1975) classified strategies in terms of processes contributing directly or indirectly to language learning. Wong-Fillmore (1976), Tarone (1977), Naiman et al. (1978), Bialystok (1979), Cohen and Aphek (1981), Wenden (1982), Chamot and O'Malley (1987), Politzer and McGroarty (1985), Conti and Kolsody (1997), and many others studied strategies used by language learners during the process of foreign language learning.

Definition of a Language Learning Strategy

The term language learning strategy has been defined by many researchers. Wenden and Rubin (1987:19) define learning strategies as "... any sets of operations, steps, plans, routines used by the learner to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval, and use of information." Richards and Platt (1992:209) state that learning strategies are "intentional behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning so as to better help them understand, learn, or remember new information." Faerch Claus and Casper (1983:67) stress that a learning strategy is "an attempt to develop linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in the target language." According to Stern (1992:261), "the concept of learning strategy is dependent on the assumption that learners consciously engage in activities to achieve certain goals and learning strategies can be regarded as broadly conceived intentional directions and learning techniques." All language learners use language learning strategies either consciously or unconsciously when processing new information and performing tasks in the language classroom. Since language classroom is like a problem-solving environment in which language learners are likely to face new input and difficult tasks given by their instructors, learners' attempts to find the quickest or easiest way to do what is required, that is, using language learning strategies is inescapable.
Language learning strategies language learners use during the act of processing the new information and performing tasks have been identified and described by researchers. In the following section, how various researchers have categorized language learning strategies will be shortly summarized:

Taxonomy of Language Learning Strategies

Language Learning Strategies have been classified by many scholars (Wenden and Rubin 1987; O'Malley et al. 1985; Oxford 1990; Stern 1992; Ellis 1994, etc. ). However, most of these attempts to classify language learning strategies reflect more or less the same categorizations of language learning strategies without any radical changes. In what follows, Rubin's (1987), Oxford's (1990), O'Malley's (1985), and Stern's (1992) taxonomies of language learning strategies will be handled:

Rubin's (1987) Classification of Language Learning Strategies

Rubin, who pionered much of the work in the field of strategies, makes the distinction between strategies contributing directly to learning and those contributing indirectly to learning. According to Rubin, there are three types of strategies used by learners that contribute directly or indirectly to language learning. These are:
  • Learning Strategies
  • Communication Strategies
  • Social Strategies

Learning Strategies

They are of two main types, being the strategies contributing directly to the development of the language system constructed by the learner:
  • Cognitive Learning Strategies
  • Metacognitive Learning Strategies

Cognitive Learning Strategies

They refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem-solving that require direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning materials. Rubin identified 6 main cognitive learning strategies contributing directly to language learning:
  • Clarification / Verification
  • Guessing / Inductive Inferencing
  • Deductive Reasoning
  • Practice
  • Memorization
  • Monitoring

Metacognitive Learning Strategies

These strategies are used to oversee, regulate or self-direct language learning. They involve various processes as planning, prioritising, setting goals, and self-management.

Communication Strategies

They are less directly related to language learning since their focus is on the process of participating in a conversation and getting meaning across or clarifying what the speaker intended. Communication strategies are used by speakers when faced with some difficulty due to the fact that their communication ends outrun their communication means or when confronted with misunderstanding by a co-speaker.

Social Strategies

Social strategies are those activities learners engage in which afford them opportunities to be exposed to and practise their knowledge. Although these strategies provide exposure to the target language, they contribute indirectly to learning since they do not lead directly to the obtaining, storing, retrieving, and using of language (Rubin and Wenden 1987:23-27).

Monday, October 31, 2016

For dustance learners

Course: English
Credit: 8
The curriculum enables learners to communicate confidently and effectively and to develop the critical skills to respond to a range of information, media and texts with understanding and enjoyment. Learners who follow this curriculum framework will develop a first language competency in English based on a curriculum designed to be successful in any culture and to promote cross-cultural understanding. This curriculum develops learners’ speaking, listening, reading and writing skills in English. We deliver full curricula and textbooks online.

Textbooks (1st term)
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-1 coursebook beginner. Express publishing, 2000.
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-1 workbook beginner. Express publishing, 2000.
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-1 grammar beginner. Express publishing, 2000.

Textbooks (2nd term)
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-2 coursebook beginner. Express publishing, 2000.
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-2 workbook beginner. Express publishing, 2000.
Virginia Evans, Jenny Dooley. Enterprise-2 grammar beginner. Express publishing, 2000.

There are two assessment options:
1)     Progression Tests (online)
  • Come with clear guidance, standards and mark schemes
  • Can be used any time in the year, as many times as needed
2)     Checkpoint (marked in school)
We offer checkpoint tests twice a year and they are usually taken at the end of terms (in January, in May).

Teacher’s e-mail:

Course: American Literature
Credit: 2
The syllabus enables learners to read, interpret and evaluate texts through the study of literature in English. Learners develop an understanding of literal meaning, relevant contexts and of the deeper themes or attitudes that may be expressed. Through their studies, they learn to recognize and appreciate the ways in which writers use English to achieve a range of effects, and will be able to present an informed, personal response to the material they have studied.
The syllabus also encourages the exploration of wider and universal issues, promoting learners' better understanding of themselves and of the world around them..

Assignments or Short stories
We deliver assignments or short stories and receive student’s book reports online.
  1. The story in September
    1. Mark Twain “Luck”
  2. The story in October
    1. Caty Weaver "She Reaps What She Sows."
  3. The story in November
    1. O.Henry “The Gift of the Magi”
  4. The story in December
    1. Jack Longdon “To Build a Fire”

Guidance notes
-       Students are not required to compare poems or stories within the assignments.
-       Book reports should be between 600-1000 words.
-       Students should use word processors.
-       Students should remember to carefully proofread their work.

Assessment criteria
  1. Answers in this band have all the qualities of Band 2 work, with further insight, sensitivity, individuality and flair. /23-25 points/
  2. Sustains a perceptive and convincing personal response /20-22 points/
·         Shows a clear critical understanding of the text
·         Responds sensitively and in detail to the way the writer achieves her/his effects
·         Integrates much well-selected reference to the text
  1. Makes a well-developed and detailed personal response /16-19 points/
·         Shows a clear understanding of the text and some of its deeper implications
·         Makes a developed response to the way the writer achieves her/his effects
·         Supports with careful and relevant to the text
  1. Makes a reasonably developed personal response /14-15 points/
·         Shows understanding of the text and some of its deeper implications
·         Makes some response to the way the writer uses language
·         Shows some thoroughness in the use of supporting evidence from the text
  1. Begins to develop a personal response /11-13 points/
·         Shows some understanding of meaning
·         Uses some supporting textual detail
  1. Attempts to communicate a basic personal response /8-10 points/
·         Makes some relevant comments
·         Shows a basic understanding of surface meaning of the text
·         Makes a little supporting reference to the text
  1. Some evidence of simple personal response /5-7 points/
·         Makes a few straightforward comments
·         Shows a few signs of understanding the surface meaning to the text
·         Makes a little reference to the text
  1. Limited attempt to respond /1-4 points/
·         Shows some limited understanding of simple/literal meaning
  1. No answer/Insufficient to meet the criteria for Band 8 /0 point/
Teacher’s e-mail: